Roots of Humanistic Judaism

A cultural and ethnic Jewish identity expressed through a secular, humanistic approach to life was not invented from scratch. Wine would often explore the intellectual and historical forbearers to his vision of Humanistic Judaism. From pre-modern Jewish heretics and an “underground tradition” of Jewish skepticism, to Spinoza and the Enlightenment in the 17th-18th centuries to Maskilim [Jewish enlighteners], to Jewish nationalists and Yiddish socialists in the 19th-20th centuries, Wine drew from many thinkers who came before his time